The name "Tanzania" is a word born from the merger of "Tanganyika" and "Zanzibar"; it was adopted when the two countries joined in 1964. Tanzania has 59.09 million inhabitants and has a surface area of 945,087 square kilometers, three times larger than Italy. Dar es Salaam is the largest city and was the capital until the seventies, the new capital is Dodoma, located in the center of the country. In the country more than 120 ethnic groups live together, each ethnic group has its own language, but the national language is Swahili.
Tanzania has 17 national parks and 6 UNESCO World Heritage sites including the Kilimanjaro National Park and the Serengeti, the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and the historic town of Stone Town in Zanzibar.
Tanzania is predominantly mountainous in the north-east, where Kilimanjaro (5.895 mt s.l.m.) is the highest peak in Africa. In the same region there is also Mount Meru, which dominates the city of Arusha from which the safari expeditions leave. The central part of the country conforms like a vast plateau, with plains and areas suitable for agriculture. In the north and west lies the Great Lakes region, including Lake Victoria (the largest in Africa) and Lake Tanganyika (the deepest in Africa). Another lake is the Natron, characterized by salt water and located in the Rift Valley, near the border with Kenya. Tanzania has many large, ecologically significant nature parks, including the famous Ngorongoro, the Serengeti National Park in the north, the Selous Game Reserve and the Mikumi National Park in the south; the Gombe National Park to the west is known for studies by Dr. Jane Goodall on the behavior of chimpanzees.
The island of Zanzibar is an island of Tanzania, located in the Indian Ocean, along with Pemba and Mafia belongs to a group of islands sometimes referred to as the "spice islands"
Tanzania was founded in 1964 with the union between the Tanganyika and Zanzibar. The country is home to over 120 tribes, most of whom have migrated from other parts of Africa. The first Europeans to arrive were the Portuguese in 1498 who settled on the coast and also controlled the island of Zanzibar until 1699 when they were expelled from the island by the hand of Omari Arabis. At the end of the nineteenth century, together with Rwanda and Burundi, Tanganyika became part of the German colonies in East Africa following the treaty between the English and the German. Following the defeat of Germany in World War II, the territory was administered by the British under the mandate of the United Nations. The Tanganyika became independent of the Commonwealth in 1961 after a period of self-government during which the main political party, the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), emerged as the dominant political force. His charismatic leader, Julius Nyerere, occupied the post of president from the day of independence until 1985. In 1964, Tanganyika and Zanzibar gave rise to a new state, Tanzania.
• Capital: Dodoma
• Administrative Capital: Dodoma
• Commercial Capitae: Dar Es Salaam
• Capital of Safari: Arusha
• Type of Government: Repubblica
• Population: 59.090.000
• Surface area: 945.080 kmq circa
• Time zone: from October to March 2 hours ahead of Italy, 1 hour ahead when in Italy there is summer time (from March to October)
• Languages: English and kiswahili
• Religions: Christianity (45%) and Islam (55%)
• Currency: Tanzania Shilling (TZS)
• Prefix for Italy: +39
• Prefix from Italy: +255
Tanzania is located a few degrees below the equator, but being between the two tropics it enjoys a tropical climate, influenced above all by the altitude. In general, highland areas (such as the Ngorongoro conservation area) and mountain areas (eg Kilimanjaro) enjoy lower average temperatures and lower humidity than plains, areas coastal areas and islands (eg Zanzibar and Pemba). You can visit the village and make beautiful safaris almost all year long. The seasons in Tanzania are mainly divided into: long rainy season (from late March to late May) and small rainy season (during the month of November). The remaining months are the so-called dry season in which it hardly rains, indicatively from mid / late May to late October and from December to April.
In general, dry and rainy seasons alternate during the year as follows:
• Short dry season: from December to the end of March. It is the season characterized by higher temperatures and some pleasant precipitation from time to time.
• Long dry season: from June to late October or mid-November. It is the driest season ever. The temperatures are "cooler" and the Kusi, the wind that comes from the South, generally blows on the coasts.
• Long rainy season (also called Masika in Kiswahili): from April to the end of May (as it is monsoons, it is difficult to identify a precise period, therefore you can consider the peak during the month of April, with possible advance to March or extension in May). It is the season characterized by large showers, especially in the afternoon.
• Short rainy season: (also called Mvuli in Kiswahil): during the month of November. It is the season characterized by weak and infrequent showers.
It is also useful to know that the rainy seasons can be one or two, depending on the area of the country where you are.
Here are some of the most popular and famous destinations in Tanzania, specifying the best months of the year for a trip or a safari:
Parks of Northern Tanzania: (Arusha National Park, Ngorongoro National Park, Serengeti National Park, Tarangire National Park, Lake Manyara): generally recommended in December, January, February, March, but especially June, July, August, September and October when water scarcity obliges all animals to gather near permanent rivers and lakes.
Serengeti National Park: particularly recommended during the months of the end of December, January, February, March, during the period of the Great Migration, when the herds moving from the north to the south (Ndutu) also attract numerous predators, and in the months between May and September when the wildebeests cross the river Grumeti first, and then the Mara towards Kenya, escaping the attacks of numerous crocodiles. In February it is possible to attend the birth show near the plains of Ndutu.
Ngorongoro Crater: all year round, but especially recommended during the rainy season, when the animals mate, and in February to attend the birth show.
Trekking on Mount Kilimanjaro: recommended during the months of December, January, February. In the months of July, August and September the temperatures are lower.
Coastal zones and islands: recommended during the months of December, January, February and March when temperatures reach pleasantly 30 ° C. Even the months from July to October, although the temperatures are slightly lower (around 24 ° C), as the climate is cooler and more ventilated, the months from April to June are extremely rainy months not very suitable for a seaside holiday, in November there are so-called 'small rains' temperatures are high but the climate is extremely variable and quite rainy.
International calls can be made directly. The coverage for mobile phones is very good thanks to several local operators. The international country code for Tanzania is +255. To call the local numbers, remove the international code and enter the zero usually indicated in brackets.
The Dar es Salaam International International Airport is located 15 kilometers south-west of the city (25 minutes from the city center without traffic). Kilimanjaro International Airport is 40 km from Arusha (1 hour from the city center). In all airports you can ask for an entry visa on arrival.
The passport must be valid for at least 6 months from the date of entry into the country. Citizens of the European Union can purchase visas on arrival at Kilimanjaro, Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar airports. The cost of the visa is currently 50 US dollars.
Citizens of the European Union can purchase visas on arrival at Kilimanjaro, Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar airports. The cost of the visa is currently 50 US dollars.
The sanitary standards during the safari are comparable to those of the West. There are no mandatory vaccinations to enter Tanzania. Anti-malarial prophylaxis is officially recommended for precautionary purposes. The hygiene standards of most lodges are Western. We invite you to consult your doctor or the local health authority before departure.
It is strongly recommended to travel light and carry only essential clothing. Lodges do not require formal attire and the used safari gear is also great for dinner. It is necessary to prepare for a large daily temperature range. It can be quite or very cold at dawn and after sunset, from mid-morning to all central hours of the day it can be very hot. Dressing in light layers will allow you to adapt to any weather conditions. We recommend clothing made of synthetic fiber (fleece, microfiber) as they breathe during the hottest hours of the day. Neutral colors such as light brown, olive green, beige or khaki should be preferred. They reflect the sun, blend well with the surrounding natural environment and do not attract the attention of certain insects too much. Avoid bright colors. Keep in mind that it is not legally permitted to wear clothing similar to military camouflage in parks.
Tanzanian shilling (TZS) is under way in Tanzania. The euro and dollars are both convertible into shillings at banks and exchange offices. Dollars are accepted in all lodges and euros are often accepted, but at an exchange rate a little more unfavorable than the official one. However it is advisable to have a little shillings for small expenses. US dollars issued before 2004 are not accepted for payments in lodges or exchange offices or for the purchase of a visa. Credit cards can be used in international hotels and lodges, but their use includes a commission. The ATMs have recently appeared in the main cities. In any case, we recommend that you bring cash with you in small pieces of 5-10-20 dollars / euro and change a few euros or shillings in dollars to make small purchases in small shops. You will find the exchange office at the airport on your arrival or in the city of Arusha.
LThe baggage allowance allowed for international flights is usually 23 kg plus hand baggage. However, we recommend only 1 baggage (soft bags) weighing 15 kg and recommend bringing a backpack that will be useful on board the Jeep. The backpack will be used to bring a camera, sweatshirt, sunscreen, sun hat, or other things to keep with you every day. In the bag we will put clothes, shoes, personal hygiene products and so on. Usually a soft duffel bag is more practical, but even a semi-rigid suitcase can fit.
Another tip is to divide the baggage into transparent plastic bags, this way it will be easier to keep the luggage ordered and find the things you need. It is also good to have a cloth or a plastic bag to cover your luggage, to protect it from dust.
It is also good to have a baby carrier (or similar) where to keep values and documents. Avoid carrying expensive jewelry with you. The country is very quiet, but it is a good idea to avoid flaunting wealth to avoid attracting any malicious people who unfortunately never fail in every part of the world, when hotels are equipped with a safe and use it right away, if not always keep valuable items with you and never leave them unattended in the rooms.
Basic clothing tips:
Sneakers or trekking shoes
Comfortable and wide cotton trousers
Bermuda for the hottest days
T-shirt Shirt or polo shirt
Thermal underwear (tank top)
Thick socks for wet mornings
A sweatshirt or a fleece
Windproof jacket or K-Way or light down jacket
Wool hat and scarves
Personal hygiene products: wet wipes and / or paper handkerchiefs.
For fans, a powerful zoom will be very useful to capture discreetly images of hunting or sleepy cats with tails dangling from plants. It is strongly recommended that you bring a good number of memory cards and spare stacks with you as it is difficult to find such material on site. We also recommend using enclosures (or plastic bags) to protect devices from sand / dust. To recharge the batteries the sockets may be different from the Italian ones, so it is better to get a universal plug (like English). It is also very useful to have binoculars with you. Recall that in most African countries it is strictly forbidden to photograph airports, installations and military vehicles, government buildings, bridges, military uniforms. The Masai sometimes ask for a small tip to be photographed, and it is good to ask people permission before photographing them, but in any case you can ask your guide for advice.
You can bring generic drugs (antipyretic, eye drops, anti-inflammatories, broad-spectrum antibiotic, intestinal / anti-diarrhea disinfectant) and do not forget any medications that you take regularly. We strongly recommend that you do not drink tap water. In the lodges / hotels are always provided with bottles of water in the room that are free and can be used to brush your teeth.
Small First Aid Kit:
Analgesic-antipitetic analgesics (eg aspirin)
Drugs against motion sickness (seasickness-self-air)
Antidiarrheal (it is very important to drink plenty of fluids to rehydrate the body, excluding carbonated drinks)
Sun cream, ointment for burns and insect bites
Sterile patches and gauze
Thermometer, scissors and tweezers
The cell phone works almost everywhere (check before you can make international calls and any costs with your operator). The international country code for Tanzania is +255. It is possible to buy a local prepaid card with data traffic to use mail, skype or other. Often in the lodges and hotels there is internet or WIFI available and depending on the hotel / lodge is available free or paid Safari Distances in Northern Tanzania
Parks in Northern Tanzania have the great advantage of being very accessible, because they are close to one another and therefore with transfers of about 2-3 hours from one park to another.
The asphalted main road is in good condition from Dar Es Salaam and goes up to the entrance of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area passing near the Kilimanjaro parks, Kilimanjaro International Airport, Arusha, Arusha Airport, Arusha Park , Tarangire and Lake Manyara. To reach the Serengeti park we will have to continue on roads and dirt tracks, to return to Arusha we have two possibilities: go back from the same road, or pass by Lake Natron where we will have to stay overnight and from there continue to Arusha again meeting the asphalt road between Karatu and Mto wa Mbu.
|Aeroporto del Kilimanjaro – Arusha||50 Km – 1 ora di transfer|
|Arusha – Tarangire||130 Km – 2 ore di transfer|
|Arusha – Manyara||120 Km – 2 ore di transfer|
|Tarangire – Manyara||60 Km – 1 ora di transfer|
|Tarangire – Karatu||90 Km – 1,5 ore di transfer|
|Arusha – Karatu||160 Km – 2,5 ore di transfer|
|Arusha – Serengeti||335 Km – 6 ore di transfer|
|Dar Es Salaam – Arusha||635 Km – 12 ore di transfer|
Arusha is known worldwide as the safari capital of the world. From here all safari trips to the parks of the North (Serengeti, Ngorongoro, Manyara, Tarangire etc.), is dominated by the majestic Mount Meru (almost 4600 m.) And in the clearest days we can see Mount Kilimanjaro, known to all as the Roof of Africa.
In the gardens and in the green areas we can see colorful birds or birds of prey such as eagles and marabou.
Safari tourism is one of the main activities in the city, a go-ahead of 4 × 4 jeeps, safari guides and minibuses that bring visitors from all over the world to discover Tanzania and its beauties. The local market is a ferment of local moving women wrapped in colorful kanga among fruits, vegetables, spices and foodstuffs. Agriculture is flourishing, fruits and vegetables are really good.
Arusha also has an important political and diplomatic role. The Arusha International Conference Center is home to the East Africa Community and was the home of the Rwanda War Crime Tribunal. Not far from Arusha there are the famous tanzanite mines, where this precious stone is extracted from the particular blue color. In shops or at local brokers it is possible to buy stones which are usually made to fit on rings, earrings or necklaces.
Zanzibar: white, dreamy white sand beaches bathed by a crystal clear sea, palm trees swayed by a light wind and a coral reef to be explored, plunging among the colorful fishes
Zanzibar is a Tanzanian archipelago off the coast of East Africa, in the Indian Ocean. On its main island, Unguja, known as Zanzibar, is Stone Town, an ancient trading center with Swahili and Islamic influences. Among its winding alleys are minarets, sculpted portals and 19th century buildings, such as the House of Wonders, an ancient palace of the sultan. The northern villages of Nungwi and Kendwa are characterized by wide beaches dotted with hotels.
Pemba: also known as Al Kuh Dra, is an island in Tanzania, located about 50 km north-east of Zanzibar and about 50 kilometers from the coast, this island just under 70 kilometers long and 20 kilometers thick with Swahili culture, it is surrounded by beaches of fine white sand, while its hinterland is dominated by clove plantations (of which the island, for centuries, was the largest producer in the world) and coconuts. The cultivation and trade of these products, together with the young tourist industry (the lodges are counted on the fingertips of one hand), are the architrave of the local economy, visiting Pembra visit a glimpse in that Tanzania still not contaminated by the mass tourism.
Mafia Island: also known as Chole Samba, is an island in Tanzania, located in the Indian Ocean about 25 km from the continent's coast. Together with Zanzibar and Pemba it belongs to a group of islands sometimes referred to as the "spice islands". The siola has about 40,000 inhabitants, pre-eminent fishermen, The coasts and the sea beds surrounding the island are a real paradise that attracts a growing number of tourists. The name "Mafia" comes from the Arabic morfiyeh ("group" or "archipelago") or from Swahili mahali pa afya ("healthy place").
Heritage of humanity
• Kilimanjaro National Park
• Ngorongoro conservation area
• Kilwa Kisiwani ruins and Songo Mnara ruins
• Selous wildlife reserve
• Serengeti National Park
• Stone Town in Zanzibar
17 National Parks
• Arusha National Park
• Gombe Stream National Park
• Jozani Chwaka Bay National Park
• Katavi National Park
• Kilimanjaro National Park
• Kitulo National Park
• Lake Manyara National Park
• Mahale Mountain National Park
• Mikumi National Park
• Mkomazi National Park
• Ruaha National Park
• Rubondo Island National Park
• Saanane Island National Park
• Saadani National Park
• Serengeti National Park
• Tarangire National Park
• Udzungwa Mountains National Park
• Menai Bay
• Misali Island